The city that connect Asia and Europe
The city that connect Asia and Europe
Istanbul is a bridge connecting Europe and Asia. The city, which consists of the Black Sea in the north, the Sea of Marmara in the south and the Bosphorus in the middle, borders the districts of Tekirdağ in the Northwest, Cerkezkoy in the west, Çorlu in the Southwest, the Marmara Ereğlisi in the Southwest, Kandıra in the Northeast, the Gulf in the East, and Gebze in the Southeast.
The whole of Istanbul, from which the city is named, is 5712 km2, located on the peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Marmara Sea. The islands in the sea of Marmara are also included in the province of Istanbul.
The vegetation around Istanbul resembles plants of the Mediterranean climate. The most common plant species in the region is "Maki", which adapts to the long and arid summer season. The most important of The Woodlands seen in places is 20 km from the city. to its North is the Belgrade Forest.
Rivers and lakes
There are no large streams in Istanbul province. The largest stream is Riva stream, which is also the largest water in Kocaeli Peninsula. Its length is 71 km. Riva River, which is, gets its sources from Kocaeli and flows in a southeast to northwest direction and flows into the Black Sea near the village of Riva.
Küçüksu and Göksu streams are the most important of the waters that flow into the Strait. In addition, Kağıkhane and Alibey streams that spill into the Golden Horn, Sazlıdere river that flows into Küçükçekmece Lake, Karasu Creek that flows into Büyükçekmece Lake, Trança Creek that flows into Terkos Lake are important rivers of Istanbul Province. There are three small but important lakes in the province. All three of these are on the European side. The water of Terkos Lake, which is separated from the sea, is sweet. The city's water is supplied from this lake. The waters of Küçükçekmece (11 km2) and Büyükçekmece (16 km2) lakes on the shores of the Marmara Sea are salty because they have contacts with the sea.
Although the summer months are generally hot and the winter months are not too cold due to the systems that affect the region, Istanbul seems to have the characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, it has different characteristics due to the influence of the Sea of Marmara and the Bosphorus. During the winter months, the cold-dry air mass coming from the Black Sea and the cold-rainy air mass coming from the Balkans are under the influence of the warm and rainy southern air masses coming from the Mediterranean. In the whole province, the Black Sea's cold rainy (northeaster) air and the Mediterranean's warm (southwester) air follow each other. Summer-winter, night-day heat differences are not seen in the province.
Istanbul has a projection area of 5.196 km2 (5.461 km2 actual area) in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is surrounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Sea of Marmara and the Golden Horn to the south, and Istanbul, which is adjacent to Kocaeli to the East, Tekirdağ and Kırklareli to the West.
Most of today's Istanbul is on the European side and the other part is on the Asian side.
Istanbul is an important gateway between land and sea. It is found on one side between the Anatolian and Balkan Peninsulas, and on the other side between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.
Seven Hills City
Istanbul has a plateau characteristic with its general appearance. The High Plains are broken up by streams. The hills of Istanbul, also called “Seven Hills City” by this geography,
1-Topkapı Palace Hill: where Topkapi Palace, Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque are located,
2-Çemberlitaş Hill: Nuruosmaniye Mosque is located,
3-Beyazit Hill: where Istanbul University, Beyazit Mosque and Suleymaniye are located,
4-Fatih Hill:where Fatihcamisi is located,
5-Yavuz Selim Hill: where Sultan Selim Mosque and complex are located,
6-Edirne Hill: where Mihrimah Sultan Mosque is located,
7-Kocamustafapaşa Hill / Cerrahpaşa Hill: It is located in the region covering Topkapı, Aksaray, Yedikule and Cerrahpaşa.
The closest distance between both coasts (Anadolu Hisarı-Rumeli Hisarı) is 760 m.
The length of the coast is 32.2 km between Ahırkapı Lighthouse and Kavak Cape on the Asian side, and 46 km between Rumeli Lighthouse and Ahırkapı Lighthouse on the European coast (including the Golden Horn).
Islands Of Istanbul
The islands of Büyükada, Heybeli, Burgas, Kınalı and Sedef, which are 9 islands connected to Istanbul in the Marmara Sea, are open for settlement. All of these islands have a face measurement of 16 km2 and the tallest island is Büyükada with 5,200 m and the broadest island with 2 thousand m is Heybeliada. Approximately 542 hectares of the islands are covered with buildings, while other parts are generally wooded, makilik and Rocky.
Istanbul, home to the continents of Asia and Europe, has a transitional climate between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, and is one of the most rainfall cities in the Marmara region. The lowest temperature in the city year-round is -11, the highest temperature is +40 degrees, while the average relative humidity is 75%.
December-January is the period in which the city has the highest amount of moisture, even though all the months of the year are humid in Istanbul, with a ratio of 80-85%.
December and March in the period between the months of snow, even though snow falls are not experienced frequently due to high humidity.
Turkey's Largest City In Terms Of Population: Istanbul
Istanbul, home to many civilizations for centuries, is Turkey's most populous city. One of the most important features of Istanbul is that it has received migration in every period of history. Istanbul continued this feature in the Republican period. In addition to being the largest city in Turkey in terms of population, Istanbul is also a metropolis where qualified manpower and significant investments are gathered.
Population Of Istanbul District
According to TurkStat figures, while the population of Istanbul was 15 million 29 thousand 231 people in 2017, it increased by 38 thousand 493 people in 2018 and reached 15 million 67 thousand 724 people. The most populous districts of Istanbul, respectively, are Esenyurt with 891 thousand 120 people, Küçükçekmece with 770 thousand 317 people and Bağcılar with 734 thousand 369 people. Istanbul's lowest populated districts are the islands with 16,19 people, Sile with 36,516 people and Çatalca with 72,966 people, respectively.
Between 2017 and 2018, the district with the highest population increase, while Esenyurt with 44,628 people, the district with the least increase was Şişli with 93 people.
2018, Ataşehir, Bağcılar, Bahçelievler, Bayrampaşa, Bakırköy, Beşiktaş, Beykoz, Beyoğlu, Esenler, Gaziosmanpaşa, Güngören, Kağıthane, Kadıköy, Kartal, Küçükçekmece, Maltepe, Pendik, Sariyer, Sultangazi, Ümraniye, Üsküdar, Zeytinburnu district, there has been a decrease in the population.
Population By Year
The population of Istanbul was 13 million 255 thousand 685 in 2010, 13 million 624 thousand 240 in 2011, 13 million 854 thousand 740 in 2012, 14 million 657 thousand 434 in 2015, 14 million 804 thousand 116 in 2016, 15 million 29 thousand 231 in 2017, and 15 million 67 thousand 724 in 2018.
Migration In Istanbul
The number of people who emigrated to Istanbul was 416,587 between 2016-2017 and this figure was 385,482, with a decrease of 31,105 people between 2017-2018.
The number of migrants from Istanbul has increased from 422 thousand 559 between 2016-2017 to 173 thousand 244 and 595 thousand 803 between 2017-2018. The net migration rate of Istanbul between 2017-2018 is -210 thousand 321 and the net migration rate is -13.9.